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Blesinde der Sueben

324-403

  • Geslacht: vrouw
  • Geboorte: 324 Saksen, Duitsland (Meer...)
  • Overlijden: Y 403 Saksen, Duitsland (Meer...)
  • Beroep: prinses (Meer...)
  • Intergratie: The civil war that erupted in the Iberian Peninsula between the forces of Constantine and Gerontius left the passes through the Pyrenees either purposely or consequently neglected, making southern Gaul and the Iberian Peninsula susceptible to barbarian attack. Hydatius documents that the crossing into the Iberian Peninsula by the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi took place on either the 28 September or the 12 October 409.[14] Some scholars take the two dates as the beginning and the end to the crossing of the Pyrenees mountain range into the Iberian Peninsula, since the crossing over of such a formidable barrier by scores of thousands could not have possibly been done in a twenty-four hour time frame.[15] Hydatius writes that upon entering of Hispania the barbarian peoples —and even so the same Roman soldiers— spent two years 409–410 in a frenzy, plundering food and goods from the cities and countryside, causing a famine in the process that, according to Hydatius, forced cannibalism amongst the locals, “[driven] by hunger human beings devoured human flesh; mothers too feasted upon the bodies of their own children whom they had killed and cooked with their own hands.”[16] In 411 the various barbarian groups decided on the establishment of a peace and divided the provinces of Hispania among themselves sorte, “by lot”. Many scholars believe that the reference to “lot” may be to the sortes, “allotments,” which barbarian federates received by the Roman government, which suggests that the Suevi and the other invaders were under a treaty with Maximus’s government. There is, however, no concrete evidence of any treaties between the Romans and the barbarians: Hydatius never mentions any treaty, and states that the peace in 411 was brought about by the compassion of the Lord,[17][18] while Orosius asserts that the kings of the Vandals, Alans and Sueves were actively pursuing a pact similar to that of the Visigoths at a later date.[19] The division of the land between the four barbarian groups went as such: the Siling Vandals settled in Hispania Baetica, the Alans were allotted the provinces of Lusitania and Hispania Carthaginensis, and the Hasding Vandals and the Suevi shared the northwestern province of Galicia.[18] The division of Galicia between the Suevi and the Hasding Vandals placed the Suevi in the western of the province, by the Atlantic Ocean shores,[20] most probably in lands now between the cities of Porto in Portugal, in the south, and Pontevedra in Galicia, in the north. Soon Braga would become their capital, later expanding themselves into Astorga, and in the region of Lugo and in the valley of the Minho river,[21] with no evidence suggesting that the Suevi inhabited any other cities in the province prior to 438.[22] The initial relation between Galicians and Suevi were not as calamitous as sometimes suggested,[23] as Hydatius mentions not war or conflict with the locals between 411 and 430. In the other hand, Orosius affirmed that the newcomers turned their swords into ploughs once they received their new lands.[24] Based on some toponimical data, it has been proposed[25] that another Germanic group accompanied the Suebi and settled in Galicia, the Buri, allegedly in the region between the rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as Terras de Bouro (Lands of the Buri), known in the High Middle Ages as Burio. Road sign at the village of Suevos, Ames, A Coruña As the Suebi quickly adopted the local Vulgar Latin language, few traces were left of their Germanic tongue in the Galician and Portuguese languages. Anyway the words most usually attributed to the Sueves[26][27] are rural in its nature, relative to animals, agriculture, and country life:[24] laverca 'lark' (from Proto-Germanic *laiwazikon[28] 'lark'), meixengra 'titmouse' (same word as Old Nordic meisingr 'titmouse', from *maison[28] 'titmouse'), lobio or lóvio 'vinegrape' (to *lauban[28] 'foliage'), britar 'to break' (from *breutanan[28] 'to break'), escá 'bushel' (from ancient scala 'bowl', from *skelo[28] 'bowl'), ouva 'elf, spirit' (from *albaz[28] 'elf'), marco 'boundary stone' (from PGmc *markan[28] 'frontier, limit'), groba 'gully' (from *grobo[28] 'groove'), among others. Most notable were their contribution to local toponymy and anthroponymy, as personal names bore by the Sueves were in use among Galicians up to the Low Middle Ages, whilst East Germanic names in general were the most common names among locals during the High Middle Ages.[29] From these names is derived also a rich toponymy, found mainly in Galicia and northern Portugal,[24] and made up of several thousands of place names derived directly from Germanic personal names, expressed as Germanic or Latin genitives:[30] Sandiás, medieval Sindilanes, Germanic genitive form of the name Sindila; Mondariz from the Latin genitive form Munderici Munderic's; Gondomar from Gundemari; Baltar from Baltarii; Guitiriz to Witterici. Another group of toponyms which point to old Germanic settlements are the places named Sa, Saa, Sas, in Galicia, or Sá in Portugal, all derived from the Germanic word *sal- 'house, hall',[27] and distributed mostly around Braga and Porto in Portugal, and in the Minho river valley and around Lugo in Galicia, totalling more than a hundred. (Meer...)
  • Oorsprong: Little is known about the Suevi who crossed the Rhine on the night of 31 December 406 AD and entered the Roman Empire. It is speculated that these Suevi are the same group as the Quadi, who are mentioned in early writings as living north of the middle Danube, in what is now lower Austria and western Slovakia,[1][2] and who played an important part in the Germanic Wars of the II century, when together with the Marcomanni fought fiercely against the Romans commanded by emperor Marcus Aurelius. The main reason behind the identification of the Suevi and Quadi as the same group comes from a letter written by St. Jerome to Ageruchia, listing the invaders of the 406 crossing into Gaul, in which the Quadi are listed and the Suevi are not.[2] The argument for this theory, however, is based solely on the disappearance of mention of the Quadi and the emergence of the Suevi, and contrast with the testimony of other contemporary authors, as Orosius who did cite indeed the Suevi among the peoples traversing the Rhine in 406, and who cite them side by side with Quadi, Marcomanni, Vandals and Sarmatians in another passage.[3] Sixth century authors identified the Sueves of Galicia with the Alamanni,[4] or simply with Germans,[5] whilst the 4th century Laterculus Veronensis mentions some Suevi side by side with Alamanni, Quadi, Marcomanni and other Germanic peoples. Additionally it has been pointed out that the lack of mention of the Suevi could mean that they were not per se an older distinct ethnic group, but the result of a recent ethnogenesis, with many smaller groups -among them also part of the Quadi and Marcomanni- coming together during the migration from the Danube valley to the Iberian Peninsula.[6][7] Other groups of Sueves are mentioned by Jordanes and other historians as residing by the Danube regions during the 5th and 6th centuries.[6] (Meer...)
  • Signalement: (Meer...)
  • Migratie: Although there is no clearly documented reason behind the migration of 406, a widely accepted theory is that the migration of the various Germanic peoples west of the Rhine is due to the westward push of the Huns during the late 4th century. The reasoning being that the activities of the Huns disrupted and threatened the existing peoples of the region forcing them to uproot.[8] It should be noted that this theory has created controversy within the academic community, because of the lack of convincing evidence. Whether displaced by the Huns or not, the Suevi along with the Vandals and Alans crossed the Rhine on the night of 31 December 405.[2][9] Their entrance into the Roman Empire was at a moment when the Roman West was experiencing a series of invasions and civil wars; between 405 and 406, the Western regions of the empire saw the invasion of Italy by Goths under Radagaisus, as well as a steady stream of usurpers. This allowed the invading barbarians to enter Gaul with little resistance, consequently allowing for the barbarians to cause considerable damage to the northern provinces of Germania Inferior, Belgica Prima, and Belgica Secunda before the empire saw them as a threat. In response to the barbarian invasion of Gaul, the usurper Constantine III, halted the masses of Vandals, Alans, and Sueves, who remained confined to northern Gaul.[10] But in the spring of 409, Gerontius led a revolt in Hispania and set up his own emperor, Maximus. Constantine, who had recently been elevated to the title of Augustus, set off to Hispania to deal with the rebellion. Gerontius responded by stirring up the barbarians in Gaul against Constantine, convincing them to mobilize again, and, in the summer of 409, the Vandals, Alans, and Suevi began pushing south towards Hispania.[11][12][13 (Meer...)
  • Record-id: MH:I3007

Ouders

Gezin 1

Kinderen

  1. Marcomir (Marchomir) der Oost-Franken (347-404)
  2. Blesinde von Köln (375-418)

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